Completed Research & Evaluation
The New South Wales (NSW) Aboriginal population is one of the fastest growing in the country. Estimates for the total Indigenous population in the state increased from around 189 000 in 2006 to around 267 000 in 2016. This very rapid growth is likely to lead to a significant number of policy challenges, and opportunities. The aim of this paper is to use data from the Census of Population and Housing in 2006, 2011 and 2016, as well as the associated Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset, to analyses the composition and implications of change in the Aboriginal population in NSW. Undertaken in in partnership with the Centre for Social Research and Methods at the Australian National University, the paper shows that some, but not all, of the growth in the Aboriginal population between 2006 and 2016 was driven by identification change (a net inflow of people who previously did not identify as being Indigenous but now do), as well as contributions from births and interstate migration. We also show that, although the Indigenous population in 2016 in NSW had substantially better socioeconomic outcomes than the 2006 and 2011 populations, a significant component of this improvement was because the newly identified Aboriginal population had more favourable outcomes than the always-identified population.
Working from the inspiration provided by the NSW Coalition of Aboriginal Regional Alliances in their report with recommendations to the NSW Government following Stage One of the OCHRE Evaluation, this paper explores the ‘threads’ of co-design and community-based participatory research as they relate to evaluation and research in Aboriginal contexts. The report aims to assist Aboriginal, research and policy communities in considering and implementing co-design in evaluation and community-based participatory research into the future. Undertaken in partnership with Black Swan Consulting, this paper provides the following factors to be keys to success: invest in mutual capacity building, pay attention to context, balance perspectives, co-design takes time, plan plan and plan some more, and co-design is needed throughout the evaluation not just upfront.
This study continues the examination of the OCHRE evaluation process that so far has looked at the challenges, aspirations, and motivations of NSW Aboriginal Affairs staff within their dual roles of Aboriginal community member and public servant; and the challenges and tensions in obtaining local Aboriginal community consent including the meaning of consent, and the management of consent processes.
With the approval of the local Aboriginal communities involved, the Social Policy Research Centre at the University of NSW has published the findings and recommendations from the evaluation of the implementation and early outcomes OCHRE program. The Social Policy Research Centre were appointed in 2017 to maintain the continuing conversations about OCHRE with local Aboriginal communities that commenced in 2012.
There is a full report and a summary report for each of the programs included in the evaluation and a report that synthesises the findings across these programs.
- Campbelltown Opportunity Hub
- Tamworth Opportunity Hub
- Murdi Paarki Regional Assembly - Local Decision Making
- Gumbaynggirr Aboriginal Language and Culture Nest
- North West Wiradjuri Aboriginal Language and Culture Nest
Further information about the evaluation can be found here.
This report, by the Sydney Centre for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Statistics updates the New South Wales Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage Report 2017 with recently released data for Young child mortality, Early childhood education, Reading, writing and numeracy, Years 1 to 10 school attendance, Year 12 attainment, Post-secondary education, Substantiated child abuse and neglect, Family and community violence and Imprisonment and juvenile detention.
The report covers the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) targets and the Headline Indicators for New South Wales, corresponding to Sections 4.1–4.13 of the report. Each section discusses the data limitations and the sources of the data.
This report, by the Sydney Centre for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Statistics, provides the most recent data for NSW corresponding to the Productivity Commissions’ Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage Report (2016) for the Commonwealth. The report covers the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) targets and the Headline Indicators for New South Wales, corresponding to Sections 4.1–4.13 of the report.
2018 marks the tenth anniversary of the Closing the Gap framework, which was established as the main architecture for Commonwealth, State and Territory governments to work together with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples to improve outcomes for First Australians. The approach underpinning Closing the Gap – focused on measuring and addressing Indigenous disadvantage – has been the subject of increasing criticism from Indigenous communities and leaders for the growing disconnect with contemporary reform agendas in Indigenous policy, as well as shift towards a more strengths based conversation that places Indigenous aspiration and decision making at its centre. To this end, the Prime Minister committed to a “refresh” of the Closing the Gap framework in December 2016, with a renewed emphasis on collaborative effort, evaluation and building on what works in each jurisdiction. NSW, along with all other states and territories, is working with the Commonwealth to develop a new strengths based approach to the Closing the Gap agenda that is designed in partnership with Aboriginal communities and experts. The NSW Government’s commitment to a strengths based approach to policy is reflected in OCHRE and the Aboriginal Affairs NSW Research Agenda.
Gaining an Aboriginal community’s permission or agreement for research or evaluation activity goes to the very validity and integrity of research in Aboriginal contexts. Not only is the principle of ‘informed consent’ consistent with widely accepted ethical practice in social or human research, but ‘community consent’ is particularly important in Aboriginal contexts given an historical backdrop of Aboriginal people being either unwillingly subjected to, or unwittingly subjects of, research carried out by outsider institutions. Undertaken in partnership with Black Swan Consulting, this paper finds five critical success factors regarding Aboriginal community consent for social research: community empowerment, time, trust, local tailoring, and clear and constant communication.
This guide provides practical support to public servants undertaking or managing research and evaluation activities in Aboriginal affairs in NSW. By grounding research and evaluation practice with Aboriginal communities from cultural, historical, social, post-colonial and political dimensions, the guide customises and complements the NSW Government Evaluation Framework. The guide recognises the challenges faced by Aboriginal public servants in undertaking research and evaluation on Aboriginal Country.
In this report, Dr Heidi Norman from the University of Technology Sydney, examines the historical and current policy context relevant
to the return of public lands to Aboriginal control or ownership in NSW. The paper provides an overview of the emerging issues,
including the urgent need for policy reform and program innovation resulting from the escalation of land recovery over the next
five to seven years, the centrality of Aboriginal peoples in development and planning and conservation, the enormous potential
for Aboriginal land rights to create cultural, social and economic opportunities for Aboriginal people, and the tensions between
the Aboriginal Land Rights and Native Title Acts. The report indicates that new insights are needed to assist Aboriginal groups
to manage an expanded Aboriginal estate. This management would need to consider conservation, culture heritage management, industry
and development imperatives, as well as any intra-community contests over governance.
Policy development relating to Aboriginal people in NSW has undergone significant and fundamental changes in approach in the last thirty
to forty years. During 2012 and 2013, the NSW Government developed a new Aboriginal affairs policy. The policy, known as OCHRE,
was developed within a framework of co-production between the Government and Aboriginal communities that included over 2,700 Aboriginal
people in NSW.
So as to fully understand the successes and challenges in developing the OCHRE policy, and its subsequent implementation,
the McKell Institute were commissioned in 2017 to conduct a process evaluation. The study points to the importance and complexities
of genuine co-design with Aboriginal people. Findings suggest that success requires attention to timeframes, workforce, leadership,
maintaining buy-in over time, accountability, and working within Aboriginal communities ways of knowing and doing. The report concludes
that while other jurisdictions have attempted co-design “OCHRE stands alone in its scale and ambition”.
The case study is complemented by a literature review. Assessing the approach used in government policy development in Aboriginal affairs
in NSW over the last 30-40 years the review highlights the major initiatives and structure of Aboriginal affairs policy in the
state in modern times, and notes the unique nature of OCHRE in contrast to earlier policy development approaches.
State-wide industry based Agreements (IBAs) are public commitments from peak industry bodies and the NSW Government to forge long term
partnerships that will strengthen economic prosperity and independence in local Aboriginal communities. A review of learnings and
achievements from the operation of IBAs has been completed by The Centium Group Pty Ltd. The review suggests that the program would
benefit from the involvement of Aboriginal communities at all stages, stronger program governance and accountability arrangements,
a customised Program Logic Model for each IBA, and promotion of the learnings from the actions plans.
This research project explored the devolution of decision-making power from the NSW public service to Aboriginal communities, focusing
on the structural and attitudinal changes required within the NSW public service to deliver better outcomes for Aboriginal communities.
The findings suggest that devolution could be achieved through strengthening the career paths for Aboriginal public servants, increasing
the cultural competency of public servants tailored to local contexts, including through building stronger relationships with Aboriginal
communities, and encouraging public sector leaders to demonstrate a commitment and visibility in developing cultural competence
for themselves and their staff. The project was undertaken in partnership between Aboriginal Affairs and students from the ANZSOG
Executive Masters Program, under the supervision of the University of Sydney.
This 2016 study, undertaken in partnership with Black Swan Consulting, examined the challenges, aspirations, and motivations of NSW
Aboriginal Affairs staff in monitoring and evaluation spaces within their dual roles of Aboriginal community member and public
servant. The study found that Aboriginal public servants could play a more constructive and enabling role in breaking down the
barriers that get in the way of developing the rigorous evidence required to develop appropriate policy and practice responses.
Achieving this requires re-thinking the ‘insiders’ and ‘outsiders’ paradigm. The paper concludes that the latter is unlikely to
deliver the shared pool of expertise needed in the Aboriginal affairs public evaluation space, and that the former would be assisted
through professional development that equips Aboriginal public servants with knowledge and skill in culturally appropriate research
This report provides the key findings of a literature review undertaken by the Social Policy Research Centre (UNSW Australia) to inform
the methodological and ethical approach to the OCHRE evaluation. The report provides an overview of research and evaluation
paradigms, the different types of evaluations, and the different stances taken to discern between these types of evaluations. The
review has a particular focus on Indigenous evaluation theory and practice. The authors note that research and evaluation has tended
to be viewed with hostility and suspicion by most Indigenous communities, although this can be mitigated through community controlled
approaches. The recent growth in decolonising research approaches has led to the development of strict protocols and standards
for researchers undertaking research in Indigenous communities. However, the research literature has acknowledged that achieving
these standards can be very challenging, and that some are in tension with each other. Furthermore, there is little consideration
about how to implement these standards in practice. Although the literature recognises that qualitative research methods have been
traditionally favoured in Indigenous research and evaluation projects, the use of quantitative and economic evaluation methods
is increasing, and can be used effectively if implemented in accordance with community protocols. The review concludes by recognising
the potential for research and evaluation to be used as a resource for Aboriginal communities to advocate for their needs, for
self-determination, and for the maintenance of language and culture.
Collection of NSW Aboriginal public policy, work in progress
With the input of NSW government departments, a collection of public policies relating to Aboriginal affairs in NSW has been established.
The policies included in the collection are those identified by the departments and operational in August 2015. The collection
provides information on the geographic coverage, target population and policy focus. The collection is a work in progress and will
be updated as additional information becomes available. This project was undertaken in partnership with the Social Policy Research
Centre (UNSW Australia).
This report provides the results of a review of the literature on income management including benefits to individuals or communities,
unintended consequences, and whether its aims could be achieved through other means. The authors conclude that no study has demonstrated
that income management has resulted in improved parenting practices and child wellbeing for the mainstream population or for Aboriginal
communities. Further, that managing a family’s income through income management may not be the most suitable policy to improve
the wellbeing of Aboriginal children and their communities. The authors recommend caution on the use of income management for Aboriginal
children and their communities and support alternative programs that have an established evidence base. The review was undertaken
by the Social Policy Research Centre (UNSW Australia) and the Parenting Research Centre.
A review of knowledge and meaning for Aboriginal peoples in NSW
Undertaken in partnership with Professor Kerry Arabena in 2015, this review of the literature provides insights and draws conclusions
about how Aboriginal peoples in NSW construct meaning, interpret their world, and assert their world view in the context of the
predominant Western way of thinking.
Australian frameworks describing the Aboriginal population
Undertaken in partnership with the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare in 2015, this project examined Australian frameworks,
including those under development, that describe the Aboriginal population. It includes information on why a framework was developed
initially and how it has changed over time; who was consulted in its development; the protocols, principles, theories and practicalities
underpinning the framework; its purpose and structure; the extent to which it includes the perspectives, views, knowledge systems
and aspirations of Aboriginal peoples; and the outcome of any evaluations.
Attitudes towards Aboriginal Australians
Using existing data from the Reconciliation Barometer in 2012 and 2014 and ANUPoll in 2014, this study explores attitudes towards issues
related to Aboriginal Australians both nationally and in NSW. The study was undertaken in partnership with the Australian National
University’s Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research in 2015.
Aboriginal family violence
This review of the literature in 2014 was undertaken in partnership with Dr Kyllie Cripps and Julian Laurens, of the University of
NSW’s Indigenous Law Centre. It examined the nature, extent, causes and impact of Aboriginal family and domestic violence in NSW
and current responses in NSW and beyond. The authors identified significant gaps in the knowledge base, including a dearth of accurate
statistics, too little research focused specifically on Aboriginal families and communities, and few robust evaluations of programs
and approaches on which evidence-based responses can be built.
In 2013, Aboriginal Affairs undertook a study of the propensity of Aboriginal people in the state to identify as Aboriginal when seeking
or receiving a government service. The study sought to understand what affected this decision, and how more Aboriginal people might
be encouraged to identify as Aboriginal. This report provides the study findings.
The report provides the results of a scan of trends in NSW, and where relevant, broader demographic, economic and social environments,
to identify emerging issues relevant to Aboriginal people in NSW.
Undertaken in partnership with the Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research at the Australian National University, the report
identifies 19 areas of policy relevance, including demography, the economy, education, health and well-being, heritage, and justice
and protection. It highlights areas for policy consideration, with reference to relevant literature and data.
The Aboriginal population in NSW is estimated to be the largest in the country and one of the fastest growing. Part of this growth
appears to be driven by residents of NSW who were not identified as Indigenous in the 2006 Census, but were identified as such
in the 2011 Census. Aboriginal Affairs NSW, in partnership with the Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research at the Australian
National University, investigated the demographic characteristics of the NSW populations that were identified as Indigenous in
either the 2006 or the 2011 Census. The paper publishes the results, which shed light on this identification change.
Published in partnership with the Healing Foundation, this report outlines the issues and outcomes from the OCHRE Healing Forum held
on 23 July 2014. The forum provided a platform where policy makers – who influence the way their organisation thinks about and
responds to healing – could engage in a broad and open discussion with Aboriginal community members and service providers who are
involved every day in trauma and healing practices.
Aboriginal languages project
The Aboriginal languages project explores the connection between the teaching of Aboriginal languages and culture and the benefits
to community well-being and engagement with the education system. Dr Shayne Williams has produced two papers.
Dr Shayne Williams conducted a literature-based research study to explore the links between Aboriginal languages and cultures, Aboriginal
community well-being and Aboriginal engagement with the education system. Citing a Canadian study which found a direct link between
the speaking of an Indigenous language and a reduction in Indigenous youth suicide rates, Dr Williams concludes that Indigenous
language use, as a marker of cultural persistence, is a strong predictor of health and well-being in Canada’s Aboriginal communities.
This paper provides the theoretical, informal and research-based evidence within international, national and NSW literature analysing
the triangularity between the teaching and learning of Indigenous languages and cultures, educational engagement, participation
and scholastic success, and community health and well-being.
First published in 1981, this paper by Professor Peter Read documents the removal of Aboriginal children in NSW between 1883 and 1969,
and its enduring effects.
This report reviews a number of NSW Government Aboriginal economic development and employment initiatives to determine their effectiveness
in delivering the desired outcomes.
This report explains the approach that will be taken to evaluating local decision making alliances, opportunity hubs, language and
culture nests, and industry-based agreements – all of which are components of the NSW Government’s OCHRE strategy.
This report publishes the findings of an evaluation, conducted in partnership with the Cultural and Indigenous Research Centre Australia
(CIRCA), of the negotiations which led to the Murdi Paaki Accord. The report identifies strengths and weaknesses in the process,
and suggests how it can be improved.